Virginia Commonwealth Traumatic Brain Injury Model System

The VCU Model System of care provides comprehensive, coordinated inpatient and outpatient care for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The system includes emergency medical services; early intensive and acute medical care; comprehensive rehabilitation services; and long-term rehabilitation follow up.

The VCU program also carries out scientific research. Our research programs focus on improving care and quality of life for people with brain injury and their families. The benefits of family support and education, the effectiveness of early education for caregivers, and researching the long-term outcomes after brain injury are important areas of study. VCU staff have published their work extensively in medical and rehabilitation journals. In addition to our research, we produce a quarterly newsletter, TBI Today, distribute educational fact sheets, and participate in a variety of educational events related to brain injury rehabilitation and outcomes.

Virginia Commonwealth Traumatic Brain Injury Model System Publications

 

Title Author Journal Year
Life expectancy following rehabilitation: A NIDRR traumatic brain injury model systems study Harrison-Felix C, Kreider SE, Arango-Lasprilla JC, Brown AW, Dijkers MP, Hammond FM, Kolakowsky-Hayner SA, Hirshson C, Whiteneck G, Zasler ND Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2012
Marriage after brain injury: Review, analysis, and research recommendations Godwin, EE; Kreutzer, JS; Arango-Lasprilla, JC; Lehan, TJ Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2011
Utility of post-traumatic amnesia in predicting 1-year productivity following traumatic brain injury: Comparison of the Russell and Mississippi PTA classification intervals Nakase-Richardson, R.; Sherer, M.; Seel, R. T.; Hart, T.; Hanks, R.; Arango-Lasprilla, J. C.; Yablon, S. A.; Sander, A. M.; Barnett, S. D.; Walker, W. C.; Hammond, F. Journal of Neurosurgical Psychiatry 2011
Return to driving within 5 years of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury Novack, T. A.; Labbe, D.; Grote, M.; Carlson, N.; Sherer, M.; Arango-Lasprilla, J. C.; Bushnik, T.; Cifu, D.; Powell, J. M.; Ripley. D.; Seel, R. T. Brain Injury 2010
Practical approaches to effective family intervention after brain injury Kreutzer, J.; Marwitz, J.; Godwin, E.; Arango, J.' Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
Racial and ethnic disparities in functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after brain injury Arango, J.; Kreutzer, J. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
The traumatic brain injury model systems: history and contributions to clinical service and research Dijkers, M.P.; Harrison-Felix, C.; Marwitz, J.H. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
A multicenter study on the clinical utility of post-traumatic amnesia duration in predicting global outcome after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury Walker, W.C.; Ketchum, J.M.; Marwitz, J.H.; Chen, T.; Hammond, F.; Sherer, M.; Meythaler, J. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2010
Return to driving within 5 years of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury Novack, T. A.; Labbe, D.; Grote, M.; Carlson, N.; Sherer, M.; Arango-Lasprilla, J. C.; Bushnik, T.; Cifu, D.; Powell, J. M.; Ripley. D.; Seel, R. T. Brain Injury 2010
A multicenter study on the clinical utility of post-traumatic amnesia duration in predicting global outcome after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury Walker, W.C.; Ketchum, J.M.; Marwitz, J.H.; Chen, T.; Hammond, F.; Sherer, M.; Meythaler, J. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2010
Predictors of extended rehabilitation length of stay after traumatic brain injury Arango-Lasprilla JC, Ketchum J, Cifu D, Hammond F, Castillo C, Nichols E, Watanabe T, Lequerica A, Deng X Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2010
Differences in employment outcomes 10 years after traumatic brain injury among racial and ethnic minority groups Gary, KW; Ketchum, JM; Arango-Lasprilla, JC; Kreutzer, JS; Novack, T; Copolillo, A; Deng, X Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 2010
A mixed methods evaluation of the brain injury family intervention Kreutzer, JS; Stejskal, TM; Godwin, EE; Power, VD; Arango-Lasprilla, JC NeuroRehabilitation 2010
Predictors of family caregivers' life satisfaction after traumatic brain injury at one and two years post-injury: A longitudinal multi-center investigation Livingston, LA; Kennedy, RE; Marwitz, JH; Arango-Lasprilla, JC; Rapport, LJ; Bushnik, T; Gary, KW NeuroRehabilitation 2010
A multicentre study on the clinical utility of posttraumatic amnesia duration in predicting global outcome after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury Walker WC, Ketchum JM, Marwitz JH, Chen T, Hammond F, Sherer M, Meythaler J Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2010
Clinical considerations for the diagnosis of major depression after moderate to severe TBI Seel R., Macciocchi S., Kreutzer, J. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
Differences in Employment Outcomes 10 Years after Traumatic Brain Injury among Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups 'Gary K., Ketchum J., Arango J., Kreutzer J., Novack T., Copolillo A., Deng X. Brain Injury 2010
Gedenkschrift honoring mitchell rosenthal Kreutzer J., Arango J. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
Practical approaches to effective family intervention after brain injury Kreutzer J., Marwitz J., Godwin E., Arango J. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
Race, Ethnicity, and Neurobehavioral Outcomes One Year After Traumatic Brain Injury Arango J., Ketchum, J., Carr, C., Powell, J., Kreutzer, J., Lim C., Hammond F., Drew A. Brain Injury 2010
Racial and ethnic disparities in functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after brain injury Arango J., Kreutzer, J. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
Return to driving within 5 years of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury Novack T. A, Labbe D., Grote M., Carlson N., Sherer M., Arango-Lasprilla J. C., Bushnik T., Cifu D., Powell J. M., Ripley. D., & Seel R. T. Brain Injury 2010
The traumatic brain injury model systems: history and contributions to clinical service and research Dijkers, M.P., Harrison-Felix, C., & Marwitz, J.H. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2010
Caregivers’ well-being after traumatic brain injury: A multi-center prospective investigation Kreutzer, J.; Rapport, L.; Marwitz, J.; Harrison-Felix, C.; Hart, T.; Glenn, M.; Hammond, F. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2009
The influence of minority status on job stability after traumatic brain injury Arango-Lasprilla, J.; Ketchum, J.; Gary, K.; Kreutzer, J.; O’Neil-Pirozzi, T.; Wehman, P.; de la Plata, C.; Jha, A. PM&R 2009
A preliminary investigation of the brain injury family intervention: impact on family members Kreutzer, J.; Stejskal, T.; Ketchum, J.; Marwitz, J.; Taylor, L.; Menzel, J. Brain Injury 2009
Do racial/ethnic differences exist in post-injury outcomes after TBI? A comprehensive review of the literature Gary, K.; Arango, J.; Stevens, L. Brain Injury 2009
Race/ethnicity differences in satisfaction with life among persons with traumatic brain injury Arango, J.; Ketchum, J.; Gary, K.; Hart, T.; Corrigan, J.; Foster, L.; Mascialino, G. NeuroRehabilitation 2009
Racial differences in employment outcome after traumatic brain injury at 1, 2, and 5 years postinjury Gary, K.; Arango, J.; Ketchum, J.; Kreutzer, J.; Copolillo, A.; Novack, T.; Jha, A. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2009
A preliminary investigation of the brain injury family intervention: impact on family members Kreutzer J., Stejskal T., Ketchum J., Marwitz J., Taylor L., Menzel J. Brain Injury 2009
Do racial/ethnic differences exist in post-injury outcomes after TBI? A comprehensive review of the literature Gary K., Arango J., Stevens L. Brain Injury 2009
Race/ethnicity differences in satisfaction with life among persons with traumatic brain injury Arango J., Ketchum J., Gary K., Hart T., Corrigan J., Foster L., Mascialino G. NeuroRehabilitation 2009
Race/ethnicity differences in satisfaction with life among persons with traumatic brain injury Arango J., Ketchum J., Gary K., Hart T., Corrigan J., Foster L., Mascialino G. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2009
Racial differences in employment outcome after traumatic brain injury at 1, 2, and 5 years postinjury Gary K., Arango J., Ketchum J., Kreutzer J., Copolillo A., Novack T., Jha A. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2009
Racial/ethnic disparities in outcomes after central nervous system injury Arango J. NeuroRehabilitation 2009
Racial differences in employment outcomes after TBI Arango-Lasprilla, C., Ketchum, J.M., Williams, K., Kreutzer, J.S., Marquez de la Plata, C., O’Neil-Pirozzi, T.M., Wehman, P. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2008
Predictors of marital stability two years following traumatic brain injury Arango-Lasprilla, J. C.; Ketchum, J. M.; Dezfulian, T.; Kreutzer, J. S.; O'neil-Pirozzi, T. M.; Hammond, F.; Jha, A. Brain Injury 2008
Traumatic brain injury: A comparison of inpatient functional outcomes between children and adults Niedzwecki, C.; Marwitz, J.; Ketchum, J.; Cifu, D.; Dillard, C.; Monasterio, E. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2008
Impairment at rehabilitation admission and 1 year after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: A prospective multi-centre analysis Brown, A. W.; Malec, J. F.; Diehl, N. N.; Englander, J.; Cifu, D. X. Brain Inj 2007
Cultural issues in the rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury survivors: Recent research and new frontiers Arango, J; Niemeier, J Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2007
Gender differerences in executive functions following traumatic brain injury Niemeier, J.P.; Marwitz, J.H.; Lesher, K.; Walker, W.C.; Bushnik, T. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2007
Helping persons with traumatic brain injury of minority origin: Improve career and employment outcomes Wehman, P.; Targett, P.; Yasuda, S.; McManus, S.; Briel, L Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2007
Racial differences in caregiving patterns, caregiver emotional function, and sources of emotinal support following traumatic brain injury Hart, T; O'Neil-Pirozzi, T.M.; Williams, K.D.; Rapport, L.J.; Hammond, F.; Kreutzer, J. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2007
Toward improved practice competency in rehabilitation services for ethnically diverse survivors of traumatic brain injury Niemeier, J.; Arango, J. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2007
Marital Stability after Brain Injury: An Investigation and Analysis Kreutzer, J.S.; Marwitz, J.H.; Hsu, N.H.; Williams, K.D.; Riddick, A. NeuroRehabilitation 2007
Gender differences in executive functions following traumatic brain injury. Niemeier, J. P.; Marwitz, J. H.; Lesher, K.; Walker, W. C.; Bushnik, T. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2007
A follow-up study of older adults with traumatic brain injury: Taking into account decreasing length of stay Frankel, Jason E.; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Cifu, David X.; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Englander, Jeffrey; Rosenthal, Mitchell Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006
Complicated mild traumatic brain injury on the inpatient rehabilitation unit: A multicenter analysis Kennedy, Richard E.; Livingston, Lee; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Gueck, Shana; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Sander, Angelle M. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2006
Occupational categories and return to work after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter study Walker, W. C.; Marwitz, J.H.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Hart, T.; Novack, T. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006
Evaluation of the neurobehavioral functioning inventory as a depression screening tool after traumatic brain injury Kennedy, Richard E.; Livingston, Lee; Riddick, Amy; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Zasler, Nathan D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2005
Relationship between strength, balance, and swallowing deficits and outcome after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis Duong, Thao T.; Englander, Jeffrey; Wright, Jerry; Cifu, David X.; Greenwald, Brian D.; Brown, Allen W. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2004
The loss inventory: Preliminary reliability and validity data for a new measure of emotional and cognitive responses to disability Niemeier, Janet P.; Kennedy, Richard E.; McKinley, William O.; Cifu, David X. Disability and Rehabilitation 2004
The effects of Donepezil on traumatic brain injury acute rehabilitation outcomes Walker, W.; Seel, R.; Gebellato, M.; Lew, H.; Cornis-Pop, M.; Jena, T.; Silver, T. Brain Injury 2004
Pain pathoetiology after TBI: Neural and non-neural mechanisms Walker, William C. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2004
Ethnographic analysis of traumatic brain injury patients in the national model systems database Burnett, Derek M.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A.; Slater, Dan; Stringer, Anthony; Bushnik, Tamara; Zafonte, Ross; Cifu, David X. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Etiology of traumatic brain injury: Characterization of differential outcomes up to 1 year postinjury Bushnik, Tamara; Hanks, Robin A.; Kreutzer, Jeffrey; Rosenthal, Mitchell Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
The relationship between therapy intensity and rehabilitation outcomes after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis Cifu, David X.; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A.; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Englander, Jeffrey Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
The association of early computed tomography scan findings and ambulation, self-care, and supervision needs at rehabilitation discharge and at 1 year after traumatic brain injury Englander, Jeffrey; Cifu, David X.; Wright, Jerry M.; Black, Kertia Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of fecal incontinence after acute brain injury: Findings from the traumatic brain injury model systems national database Foxx-Orenstein, Amy; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Cifu, David X.; Dunbar, Ann; Englander, Jeffrey; Francisco, Gerard Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Violent traumatic brain injury: Occurrence, patient characteristics, and risk factors from the traumatic brain injury model system project Hanks, Robin A.; Wood, Deborah L.; Millis, Scott; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia; Pierce, Christopher A.; Rosenthal, Mitchell; Bushnik, Tamara; High, Walter M., Jr.; Kreutzer, Jeffrey Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Traumatic brain injury and substance abuse: A review and analysis of the literature Taylor, Laura A.; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Demm, Sarah R.; Meade, Michelle A. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 2003
Supported employment for persons with traumatic brain injury: A preliminary investigation of long-term follow-up costs and program efficiency Wehman, Paul; Kregel, John; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Sherron-Targett, Pam; Campbell, Leanne; West, Michael; Cifu, David X. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of fecal incontinence after acute brain injury: findings from the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems national database. Foxx-Orenstein, A.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, S.; Marwitz, J. H.; Cifu, D. X.; Dunbar, A.; Englander, J.; Francisco, G. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Moderating factors in return to work and job stability after traumatic brain injury. Kreutzer, J. S.; Marwitz, J. H.; Walker, W.; Sander, A.; Sherer, M.; Bogner, J.; Fraser, R.; Bushnik, T. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation 2003
Ethnographic analysis of traumatic brain injury patients in the national Model Systems database. Burnett, D. M.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A.; Slater, D.; Stringer, A; Bushnik,T.; Zafonte , R.; Cifu, D. X. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Violent traumatic brain injury: Occurrence, patient characteristics, and risk factors from the traumatic brain injury model system project Hanks, Robin A.; Wood, Deborah L.; Millis, Scott; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia; Pierce, Christopher A.; Rosenthal, Mitchell; Bushnik, Tamara; High, Walter M., Jr.; Kreutzer, Jeffrey Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003
Blunt versus penetrating violent traumatic brain injury: Frequency and factors associated with secondary conditions and complications Black, Kertia L.; Hanks, Robin A.; Wood, Deborah L.; Cullen, Nora; Cifu, David X.; Englander, Jeffrey; Francisco, Gerard E. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2002
Enhancing the schooling of students with traumatic brain injury Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Briel, Lori; Sherron-Targett, Pam; Yasuda, Satoko; Johnson, Susan; Wehman, Paul Teaching Exceptional Children 2002
Acute predictors of return to employment after traumatic brain injury: a longitudinal follow-up. Keyser-Marcus, L. A.; Bricout, J. C.; Wehman, P.; Campbell, L. R.; Cifu, D. X.; Englander, J.; High, W.; Zafonte, R. D. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2002
Using early neuropsychologic testing to predict long-term productivity outcome from traumatic brain injury Boake, C.; Millis, S. R.; High Jr, W. M.; Delmonico, R. L.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Rosenthal, M.; Sherer, M.; Ivanhoe, C. B. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001
The role of neuropharmacologic agents in return to work after traumatic brain injury Ericksen, J.; Cifu, D. X.; Burnett, D. Brain Injury Source 2001
Pre-injury crime, substance abuse, and neurobehavioural functioning after traumatic brain injury Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A.; Kreutzer, J. S. Brain Injury 2001
Return to work after brain injury: A self-directed approach Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A.; Kreutzer, J. S. NeuroRehabilitation 2001
Family aspects of return to work after brain injury Kreutzer, J. S.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A. Brain Injury Source 2001
A multi-center analysis of rehospitalizations five years after brain injury Marwitz, J. H.; Cifu, D. X.; Englander, J.; High, W. M., Jr. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2001
Lessons in return to work following TBI: Case studies in long-term job retention Targett, P. S.; Yasuda, S.; West, M. D. Brain Injury Source 2001
Return to work for persons with traumatic brain injury Yasuda, S.; Wehman, P.; Targett, P.; Cifu, D.; West, M. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001
Factors associated with balance deficits on admission to rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis Greenwald, Brian D.; Cifu, David X.; Marwitz, Jennifer H.; Enders, Lisa J.; Brown, Allen W.; Englander, Jeffrey S.; Zafonte, Ross D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 2001
A multi-center analysis of rehospitalizations five years after brain injury Marwitz, J. H.; Cifu, D. X.; Englander, J.; High, W. M. Jr. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation 2001
Using early neuropsychologic testing to predict long-term productivity outcome from traumatic brain injury Boake, C.; Millis, S. R.; High Jr, W. M.; Delmonico, R. L.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Rosenthal, M.; Sherer, M.; Ivanhoe, C. B. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001
Caregiver functioning after traumatic injury Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A.; Kishore, R. NeuroRehabilitation 1999
Commentary: cognitive rehabilitation outcomes Kreutzer, J. S. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1999
Laws of the house of rehab: A guide to managing psychological distress and promoting benefits from rehabilitation Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A. NeuroRehabilitation 1999
The Community Integration Questionnaire revisited: An assessment of factor structure and validity Sander, A. M.; Fuchs, K. L.; High, W. M., Jr.; Hall, K. M.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Rosenthal, M. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1999
Etiology and incidence of rehospitalization after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter analysis. Cifu, D. X.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Marwitz, J. H.; Miller, M.; Hsu, G. M.; Seel, R. T.; Englander, J.; High, W. M. Jr; Zafonte, R. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1999
The Community Integration Questionnaire revisited: An assessment of factor structure and validity Sander, A. M.; Fuchs, K. L.; High, W. M., Jr.; Hall, K. M.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Rosenthal, M. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1999
Brain injury as a result of violence: preliminary findings from the traumatic brain injury model systems Harrison-Felix, C.; Zafonte, R.; Mann, N.; Dijkers, M.; Englander, J.; Kreutzer, J. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1998
Brain injury as a result of violence: preliminary findings from the traumatic brain injury model systems Harrison-Felix, C.; Zafonte, R.; Mann, N.; Dijkers, M.; Englander, J.; Kreutzer, J. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1998
The impact of acute complications, fractures, and motor deficits on functional outcome and length of stay after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter analysis Englander, J. S.; Cifu, D. X.; Wright, J.; Zafonte, R.; Mann, N.; Yablon, S.; Ivanhoe, C. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Functional measures after traumatic brain injury: Ceiling Effects of FIM, FIM+FAM, DRS, and CIQ Hall, K. M.; Mann, N.; High, W. M., Jr.; Wright, J.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Wood, D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Descriptive findings from the traumatic brain injury model systems national data base Harrison-Felix, C.; Newton, C. N.; Hall, K. M.; Kreutzer, J. S. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Factors affecting hospital length of stay and charges following traumatic brain injury High, W. M., Jr.; Hall, K. M.; Rosenthal, M.; Mann, N.; Zafonte, R.; Cifu, D. X.; Boake, C.; Bartha, M.; Ivanhoe, C.; Yablon, S.; Newton, C. N.; Sherer, M.; Silver, B.; Lehmkuhl, L. D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Revised trauma score: an additive predictor of disability following traumatic brain injury Zafonte, R. D.; et al. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1996
Impact of age on functional outcome following traumatic brain injury Reeder, K. P.; Rosenthal, M.; Lichtenberg, P.; Wood, D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Impact of minority status on functional outcome and community integration following traumatic brain injury Rosenthal, M.; Dijkers, M.; Harrison-Felix, C.; Nabors, N.; Witol, A. D.; Young, M. E.; Englander, J. S. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Functional measures after traumatic brain injury: Ceiling Effects of FIM, FIM+FAM, DRS, and CIQ Hall, K. M.; Mann, N.; High, W. M., Jr.; Wright, J.; Kreutzer, J. S.; Wood, D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Descriptive findings from the traumatic brain injury model systems national data base Harrison-Felix, C.; Newton, C. N.; Hall, K. M.; Kreutzer, J. S. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Factors affecting hospital length of stay and charges following traumatic brain injury High, W. M., Jr.; Hall, K. M.; Rosenthal, M.; Mann, N.; Zafonte, R.; Cifu, D. X.; Boake, C.; Bartha, M.; Ivanhoe, C.; Yablon, S.; Newton, C. N.; Sherer, M.; Silver, B.; Lehmkuhl, L. D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Revised trauma score: an additive predictor of disability following traumatic brain injury Zafonte, R. D.; et al. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1996
Impact of age on functional outcome following traumatic brain injury Reeder, K. P.; Rosenthal, M.; Lichtenberg, P.; Wood, D. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
Impact of minority status on functional outcome and community integration following traumatic brain injury Rosenthal, M.; Dijkers, M.; Harrison-Felix, C.; Nabors, N.; Witol, A. D.; Young, M. E.; Englander, J. S. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996
The impact of acute complications, fractures, and motor deficits on functional outcome and length of stay after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter analysis Englander, J. S.; Cifu, D. X.; Wright, J.; Zafonte, R.; Mann, N.; Yablon, S.; Ivanhoe, C. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 1996