Comorbidity of pain and depression among persons with traumatic brain injury

Short Title:
Comorbidity of pain and depression among persons with traumatic brain injury
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Reference Type:
Journal Article
Accession No.:
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):
2015, vol. 1, issue 6, pp 1100-5
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Study examined the prevalence of pain, depression, and comorbid pain and depression among 158 individuals with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during inpatient rehabilitation and at 1-year follow-up. Depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); pain was assessed with a numerical rating scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain). Participants who reported average pain =4 were classified as having pain, and participants with PHQ-9 scores =10 were classified as depressed. Both pain and depression were more prevalent at baseline assessment (pain: 70 percent; depression: 31 percent) than at year 1 (pain: 34 percent; depression: 22 percent). Comorbid pain and depression declined from 27 percent at baseline to 18 percent at year 1. Pain was significantly associated with depression at baseline (relative risk: 2.62) and at year 1 (relative risk: 7.98). The results indicate that pain and depression are common and frequently co-occur in people with TBI. Although the frequency of both conditions declined over the first year after injury, the strength of their association increased. Findings suggest that it is essential to be aware of potential comorbidity throughout the course of recovery from TBI.
2. Jette AM, Slavin MD, Ni P, Kisala PA, Tulsky DS, Heinemann AW, Charlifue S, Tate DG, Fyffe D, Morse L, Marino R, Smith I, Williams S
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