Is there a difference in clinical outcomes, inflammation and hypermetabolism between scald and flame burn?
Pediatric Crit. Care Med
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):
2011, vol. 12, issue 6, pp 275-281
Severe thermal injury induces inflammatory and hypermetabolic responses that are associated with morbidity and mortality. However, it is not well-documented whether the causes of burns affect inflammation, hypermetabolism, and morbidity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a difference in degree of inflammation, hypermetabolism, endocrine and acute-phase response, and clinical outcome between pediatric patients with scald and flame burns.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
Children with burns requiring surgical intervention were enrolled in this cohort study and divided into two groups, scald or flame burn. In a second assignment, we analyzed the study populations in representative subgroups containing individuals with third-degree burns of 40% to 60% total body surface area. We determined clinical outcomes, resting energy expenditures, cytokine profiles, acute-phase proteins, constitutive proteins, and hormone panels. Statistical analysis was evaluated by analysis of variance, Student's t test corrected with the Bonferroni post hoc test, and the propensity score. Statistical significance was set at p < .05. A total of 912 patients were identified. Six hundred seventy-four had a flame burn and 238 had a scald burn. There was a significant difference (p < .05) in burn size (flame, 48% ± 23%; scald, 40% ± 21%), third-degree burn (flame, 39% ± 27%; scald 22% ± 25%), age (flame, 8 ± 5 yrs; scald, 3 ± 3 yrs), and mortality between groups. Propensity analysis confirmed the type of burn as a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Subanalysis conducted in a representative patient group suffering from 40% to 60% burn total body surface area revealed that flame burns lead to significantly increased hypermetabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses when compared to scald burns (p < .05). The frequency of sepsis was 3% in the scald burn group, while it was 14% in the flame group (p < .001). Multiorgan failure occurred in 14% of the scald patients, while it occurred in 17% of flame patients. The mortality in patients suffering from a scald burn was 3% compared to 6% in the flame-burned group (p < .05).
The type of burn affects hypermetabolism, inflammation, acute-phase responses, and mortality postburn.
Kraft R.A.; Kulp G.A.; Herndon D.N.; Emdad, F.; Williams F.N.; Hawkins H.K.; Leonard K.R.; Jeschke M.G.
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