Effort indicators within the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II).
The Clinical Neuropsychologist
Year, Volume, Issue, Page(s):
2009, vol. 24, issue 1, pp 153-168
This study determined whether performance patterns on the California Verbal Learning
Test-II (CVLT-II) could differentiate participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI)
showing adequate effort from those with mild TBI exhibiting poor effort using a casecontrol
design. The TBI group consisted of 124 persons with moderate to severe traumatic
brain injury (TBI). The poor effort group consisted of 77 persons with mild head injury who
were involved in litigation (LG) and failed at least one stand-alone symptom validity
measure (SVT) and also either a second SVT or an effort indicator embedded within a
standard clinical test. A total of 18 CVLT-II variables were investigated using Bayesian
model averaging (BMA) for logistic regression to determine which variables best
differentiated the groups. The CVLT-II variables having the most support were Long-
Delay Free Recall, Total Recognition Discriminability (d0), and Total Recall
Wolfe, P.L.; Millis S.R.; Hanks, R.; Fichtenberg, N.; Larrabee, G.J.; Sweet, J.J.
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